Gluten-Free FAQs

Gluten-Free FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

We wrote Gluten-Free Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day because readers asked for it, here on the website. So we expect no shortage of gluten-free questions.  Click on any of them below– these are the ones that seem to be on a lot of gluten-free bakers’ minds.  If you’re having a problem with one of our recipes, breeze through these FAQs first.  If you can’t find an answer in the FAQs, click on any “Comments” or “Reply” field (doesn’t have to be related to the content underneath).  Please tell us which book you’re working from, and which recipe and page number:

  1. Dense or gummy interior, or inadequate rising. What am I doing wrong?
  2. Gluten: What is it? And what grains contain gluten?
  3. Nutritional information: How can I calculate it?
  4. Substitutions for ingredients in our gluten-free recipes
  5. Videos: Where can I view videos so I can see what your gluten-free dough’s supposed to look like?
  6. Whole grains in gluten-free baking: how can I get more of them into the flour mixtures?

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581 thoughts on “Gluten-Free FAQs

  1. Hi, I just bought the GF ABinFive and after having had and enjoyed many of the bread recipes in your original book with gluten, I was disappointed not to find the Beet Bun recipe for GF. Have you attempted to do that recipe for GF yet? If so, would you be able to supply it to me, please? My kids and I just love those beet buns, but I’ve gone gluten free for health reasons and would like to try the beet buns GF. Thanks.

    1. Hi Laila,

      For this GF book we mostly used recipes from the Artisan Bread book and not the healthy bread book. My concern with that recipe is all the extra moisture in the beets. GF breads can have a “wet” quality if there is too much moisture in the dough. If you give it a try, you’ll want to reduce the amount of liquid in the dough and I’d start with a small batch until you get a bread you like.

      Cheers, Zoë

      Thanks, Zoë

      1. Thanks, Zoe, for your quick response. As an adjunct to that, would it be possible for me to use the original beet bun recipe and substitute the regular flour with Robin Hood Gluten free flour (which is made up of rice flour, sugar beet fibre, potato starch and tapioca starch) keeping the yeast from the original recipe and all the other ingredients as well?

      2. Hi Laila,

        I haven’t had great results from many of the flour mixes I’ve tried, but I’ve not tried Robin Hood. If you do, I would make a small batch to make sure you like the texture and flavor. You may need to add more or less depending on how much water the flour absorbs.

        Thanks, Zoë

      3. I made up the gluten free bread mix and placed it in the fridge an forgot about it, now nearly five weeks later, i removed it and opened the container. It smells like sourdough, very nice however what can I use it for seeing I should have made it into bread after four days ??

      4. It might work as-is when baked as flatbread, very thin (but no promises).

        Other way to salvage–use it as the basis for a new batch, but you’re risking the new ingredients. Which recipe are you using (which page number, which book)?

    2. Hi. I am working with the Gluten-Free Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day. I have been gluten free since the mid 1990’s, very much not by choice. I am allergic to potatoes. I have realized about 10-15% of the population requiring gluten free have problems with potatoes, as well. Have you worked on substitutes for potato starch? I find that arrowroot and corn starch work, but the liquid needs adjustment.

      1. The subsitutions we’ve tested are on page 61, and while we didn’t test the swap you’re interested in, I’m guessing it’ll work just fine, as you say. Sounds a lot like the arrowroot/cornstarch swap for tapioca on the bottom of the page.

    3. re. gluten free breads….once the warm liquid is added to the others and then mixed into dry, wouldn’t the temp be too low to sustain the yeast? Also, couldn’t find granulated….which packets should I buy….very new at this. Thanks

      1. Hi Richard,

        The yeast can work even in ice water, it just takes longer, so the dough cooling off a bit after mixing is just fine.

        All yeast in the packets or jars is granulated, so you can use any of them. You will find that the active dry or quick rise are great to begin with.

        Thanks, Zoë

    4. I see that you state that Psyllium fiber can be substituted for Xanthan gum, but is it in a 1:1 ratio? Also, on another web site they said you could also substitute chia seeds, flax seeds(powdered),gelatin, or agar agar for the gum in baking recipes. I can’t find any references to ratios of how much to use for any of these. Have you tried any?

      1. Hi Carin,

        It will somewhat depend on the recipe you are using. Some of our whole grain breads in our GF book require slightly higher amount of psyllium than xanthan, but for the most part they are used in equal amounts.

        I did try some other replacements for the xanthan and didn’t have much luck at all. Our method is useful because you can store the dough for a long period of time and none of the alternatives allowed me to do that.

        Thanks, Zoë

    5. Hi,
      I am excited to purchase your gluten free bread book. I do not have a stove where I live but I do have a turbo convection countertop oven that I cook most things in from oatmeal to boiled eggs to grilled chicken and baked potatoes etc. Because it is an oven I know I can bake in it too. Do you have baking instructions for a small convection oven?

      1. Should work, but not sure because of what you’ve said about it being “a small one.” Not sure. You could try a recipe from here on the website before committing to the book? Click on “Gluten-Free” to the right of the website here for some recipes.

    6. Thank you so much for printing this book! I Have a question – Im sure its a stupid question. on page 72 it says for lean dough bake at 205 degrees, but when you give instructions on baking the master recipe it says 450 degrees for 45 minutes.

      Thanks for your time

      1. No, that’s the temperature reading for an instant-read thermometer placed in the middle of the loaf…

      2. Thanks so much for your response. So when baking the master recipe bread with the eggs, should i keep the oven temperature at 450 degrees?

        Thank you

  2. I am using the GF base recipe for a pizza crust. I can not use the pizza crust recipe due to a corn allergy in the family. I freeze the rolled out crust and put them directly from the freezer into the hot oven. When I bake the crusts on parchment paper they are soft and soggy. If I put the crust directly on the stone it sticks so badly that the pizza is in pieces. Why? What can I do to improve the situation?

    1. Hi Sarah,

      How hot is your oven and how long are you preheating the stone? If your stone is fully up to temperature then the crust shouldn’t stick to it at all once it is baked. You can’t try to move it on the stone until the proteins have set, which can take about 8 to 10 minutes. Before that the dough may stick.

      It sounds like your oven/stone isn’t hot enough and/or your dough isn’t thin enough to bake through and get crisp.

      Here is a gluten-free pizza post that may help:

      Thanks, Zoë

    2. Hi, Sarah – and question for Zoe

      I was looking to the answer of a question I have and came across your comment about a family member having a corn allergy. I wanted to mention I also have a corn allergy, but found that it really isn’t from the corn, but from the chemicals/pesticides in the corn. When I eat/use organic corn products I am fine. May want to test this if it is not a serious allergy. I’m very happy my RA doc suggested this to me.

      Zoe, when resting the dough before going into the fridge, do we tightly cover or leave vented? I know it’s vented the first couple days in the fridge, but this is not clear to me from the book while resting on the counter and it is not covered in the videos.

      Thank you,

      1. Hi Kim,

        I have tiny holes in the lids of my buckets, so the dough is always vented. I find that it prevents an alcohol smell and taste to the dough. Having said this, Jeff doesn’t vent after the first couple of days and doesn’t perceive the alcohol at all. We’re just different in our taste. So, you can try covering it and see if you like the flavor.

        Thanks, Zoë

      2. I would like to make GF pie crust for an apple pie. I don’t see anything in the book regarding pies. Please advise! Thanks!

  3. I see the dough can stay in fridge for about a week…however, once baked can the bread be frozen? Are there good results when thawed? Thanks

  4. Zoe, HELP!
    I am very excited to have found your GF version and I have attempted twice to make your baguettes and the dough is still too dense and chewy. We live at 6500 feet in Colorado and I’m sure there must be some High Altitude adjustments I need to make. I have gone through all of your suggestions, but still have this issue. Should I add more egg whites and yeast? Please help!

    1. Have you been through the book’s tips and techniques section? In particular, what we had to say on the bottom of page 53, and then 54 through 56?

      1. Hi, Jeff, yes I have. It seems that the crust once baked is hard and the interior is very dense. I have tried the refriderator rise, and letting the dough rest for 90 minutes after shaping. I also can’t seem to get the beautiful dark brown crust you show in your photos! Anything different I need to do because of the altitude?

    1. It does sound like you’ve tried everything so we’re left with the altitude question. Unfortunately, unlike wheat breads, where so many people have experience at altitude, we didn’t have anyone at high altitude who tested for us. We were wary about suggesting the exact same high-altitude changes that we use for our wheat breads, so we didn’t include them in the book. But, here they are, at the link below. But before we put too much on that, I have to tell you that at moderate altitude (5,200 feet) we’ve had no problem with our wheat breads. You’re a little higher than that so I hope this helps.

      Assume you’re using Bob’s Red Mill flours and starches, and that you’re also using xanthan gum or ground psyllium husk to create structure?

      1. Hi Karen! I had some issues with the baguettes too and I’m at sea level. This past time, I preheated the oven with the stone in it to 500, then turned the oven temp down to the baking temp right when putting in the loaf. I got a MUCH better oven spring…it was almost like gluten bread! I think I also baked at a slightly higher temp (425?) and when the loaf sounded hollow but the crust was still very light, I upped it to 475 for the last few minutes to crisp up the crust. I don’t have my notes in front of me, but give that higher preheat a try and let us know if it works for you.

  5. The flavor of your gluten free bread tastes like bread! I have tried getting a lighter texture using eggs baking sandwich bread. The initial rise is beautiful but, after refrigeration, fails to rise again very much, even giving it 90 minutes. I’ve even tried a proofing oven. I’m wondering, for sandwich loaf, is it possible to place the dough in the pan, do the initial rise and then bake? Thank you!

    1. That is the exact trouble I had today. Rose beautifully yesterday when I mixed it, but today, couldn’t get it to rise, tried 3 locations (countertop, window in sun…top of preheating stove)…’s an edible two pound brick. Altitude 2700….

      1. You won’t see much rise after shaping–that’s the nature of our method, especially the GF. Most of our loft comes from oven spring.

        That said, you’ll get more rise with the egg-white version in the book on page 73.

  6. Your GF whole grain mix does not include any starches. I have NEVER cooked GF without some type of starch. Is this correct? I can not use oat flour, and did not see an alternative on page 61. Do you have a suggestion?

    1. Well, you’re right in the sense that this particular mixture doesn’t contain any PURE starches. But brown rice, teff, sorghum, and oats all contain starch. We were responding to readers who wanted to get away from starch-heavy GF recipes, so we give this as an option. That said, most of our recipes use a combination of Mixture #2 (the one you’re talking about), and Mixture #1, which has tapioca and potato starches. There are only two recipes in our GF book (on amazon at that call only for Mixture #2, appearing on pages 102 and 106. Because they contain no purified starches, they’re definitely denser and heartier than any of the recipes calling for at least some of Mixture #1.

  7. I just made a 2 loaves of your gf baguette recipe using your gluten free all-purpose flour from your book “Gluten-free Artisan Bread in 5 minutes a day. I let it double in size in a plastic container in the oven for 90 minutes then pressed it into a baguette shape on a piece of parchment paper using wet hands. I let it rise again for about 20 minutes and then baked it on the parchment paper on the stone for 35 minutes, removing the paper after about 20 minutes. I did have a pan of hot water in the bottom of the oven. After 35 minutes, the internal temp of the bread was 205 degrees however, it was still not brown on top. Secondly, the baguette flattened out quite a bit in the oven, losing its nice rounded shape. 1. Should I have cooked it in my baguette pan on the stone so it would retain its rounded shape?
    2. Should the top be a nice medium to dark brown color as shown on your book covers?
    Thanks for any help you might give.

    1. Sure, you can try the baguette pan to retain the shape, we like those (it’s just a cosmetic problem though, assuming everything else in the loaf was good.

      About browning– have you checked your oven temp with something like ? And have you tried the oven-shelf/switch on page 52? We like it to look carmelized. Also can try egg-white wash (one egg white whisked with 1 tablespoon water).

  8. Just made a baguette from your gluten free #1 master recipe using egg whites. All ingredients were weighed on a metric balance (including the water). I put the dough into a plastic container with vents in the lid to rise.
    The dough rose nicely after the first 2 hours. I took a 1/2 lb. piece of the dough to make a baguette before I refrigerated the rest. I gently formed the dough into a long narrow baguette shape. The dough felt a bit dry to me. I wet the top and smoothed it I let it rest again for 40 minutes. I saw no rise in the dough during the 40 minutes. I preheated my oven to 450 F (oven thermometer shows temp is accurate) with the stone for 20 minutes and then baked the baguette with water in a pan below the stone. Unfortunate I got no oven rise at all in my baguette.
    I removed the baguette after 35 minutes, good brown color, crispy outside, dense inside, no rise. The crust is great but as it didn’t rise, a bit chewy.
    I only use Bob’s red mill flours. the psyllium husk is from the local health food store.
    I have made your baguette recipe at least 4x now both with and without eggs and each time the bread does not rise after its shaped. don’t handle the dough much to shape it as I know its fragile.
    I was a great baker with wheat flours but the gf bread recipes are giving me fits.
    Should I put more yeast in? Use baking powder? Use vinegar to improve the texture and density?
    I proof the bread dough (1st time) in the oven as we keep the temp cool in the house.

    1. Have you been through the section that starts “Are GF breads denser than wheat breads?” which starts on page 53 of the book, and then the material about dense loaves that runs through page 56? Especially numbers 1 and 2. Numbers 4 and 5 as well.

  9. Hello,

    I’m intrigued about something. You propose 2 master recipes: #1 and #2. The majority of the recipes in the book use exclusively #1, some are mostly #1 with a small part of #2, and there are only 2 (100% whole-grain loaf and Seeded 100% whole-grain bread) which exclusively use #2.

    Our family happens to love the 100% whole-grain bread and we’d like to see more recipes using exclusively #2.

    Is there any reason for you not having made more recipes just for #2?


    1. Hi Nuno,

      I am so pleased that you enjoy the whole grain bread. You can use those doughs to make many of the shaped loaves. I will take a look and see if there aren’t more that could use them.

      Thanks! Zoë

      1. Thank you Zoë! I’m looking forward to knowing which others recipes I can make with mix #2. And congratulations for the great books!

  10. soni wanting to use GF all purpose flour. Can this be done? Also is there a link to both GF master recipes. I have two of you books but not the latest GF only one due to finances. Any suggestions would be helpful.

    1. Hi Erik,

      Have you tried the GF recipe from our Healthy Bread Book, it is great. None of our recipes tested well with an all-purpose blended flour, which is why we came up with our own.

      Thanks, Zoë

    1. Hi Erin,

      Most of the recipes in our GF book are also egg free. Some of the enriched doughs (sweeter ones) use eggs, but even some of those you can use egg replacers. The texture of the loaf is a touch denser, but we’ve had good reviews from those that bake egg free.

      Thanks, Zoë

      1. My daughter has just turned up with an egg allergy on top of the wheat allergy. SIGH! And everything she wants from the book is from the enriched breads chapter.

        You say above that “some of those” you can use egg replacers, but I’m not seeing that distinction in the book. Could you tell us which recipes to avoid? Using VeganEgg replacer, if it matters. Thank you!

      2. Basically, your best results will be with the recipes with 4 eggs, not 8, where it’ll be more noticeable.

  11. Hi! I was just flipping through your GF Artisan bread book and I was wondering if the flour blends (both of them) need to be refrigerated or if they’re fine at room temp in an air tight container. Another GF book I have suggests you refrigerate their flour blend. Thanks for any feedback you can give me!

    1. Hi Tracy,

      I would say it is fine at room temperature if you are using it within a month or two. You want to keep it away from direct heat and sunlight. If you live in a particularly humid place then freezing would be a good idea.

      Thanks, Zoë

  12. Recipe for soft dinner rolls (p. 90-91) in GF Artisan Bread in 5 min/day calls for preheat of a baking stone and then placing a baking sheet in the oven with the rolls on it. 1) What’s the function of using the baking stone, if the rolls aren’t placed on it? 2) Are we supposed to put the baking sheet on the stone or another shelf? There is no pan for ‘steam’ in this recipe, so it’s confusing. I did not see anything about this topic in online GF FAQ or in tips/techniques in book.

    1. Hi Erica,

      You don’t have to use the baking stone for this recipe, since you are baking on a baking sheet. If you don’t use it, the oven will preheat quicker. If you have a stone in the oven, then just place the baking sheet right on the baking stone. Because the rolls are softer, it isn’t recommended to use steam.

      Thanks, Zoë

  13. Hi, 2 questions about the basic recipe in the gf cookbook using flour blend #1:

    1) What is the difference between using a whole egg vs just the egg white in the dough?

    2) If I bake all the dough at once can I freeze some of it? Also, how long can I keep a loaf out on the counter, and what’s the best way to store it?

    Thanks! I really liked the bread last time I made it.

    1. Our all-time favorite result was the egg white version. The yolk makes things a little denser; both are good though, and we thought superior to the no-egg version (better rise/loft). The no-egg version is standard in the book’s Master only because we got concerns from GF folks who were also having problems tolerating eggs.

      Freezing: never a great option, always suffers. But you can; just wrap as airtight as you can and use relatively soon. Often picks up odd characteristics if you freeze for longer than a few weeks but this is a matter of taste, so experiment. See page 57 about storing the bread.

  14. Thanks so much for this wonderful GF bread! I have spent a lot of time and money trying out various cookbooks and flour blends in the almost 3 years since my 13 year old was diagnosed with Celiac. I had pretty much give up. I had your book on my wish list on Amazon but was reluctant to try out another dud. I cut the article/review out off Gluten Free & More magazine last fall and finally tried out the master recipe in there. I made boules for a dinner party and my daughter and another gf guest almost cried. Delicious! So I ordered the cookbook and just mixed up a recipe of the pizza & flatbread dough.

    As I’m contemplating what to make along with pizza (so hard to choose!) I was reading the bagel recipe. Two questions about it: 1) have you tried bagels with the pizza dough or am I better off to wait on bagels until I mix a more standard master dough and 2) I’m confused about the instructions for bagels. It states to preheat the baking stone, then talks about a “prepared” baking pan and then talks about putting the baking stone in the oven. Please clarify when you get a chance!

    Thank you!!

    1. Well, we’re not purists–and if you’re making a GF bagel, you’re not a purist in the 1st place, so go for it. Sorry–there are a few inconsistencies in that recipe about stone vs baking sheet– easiest option is a baking sheet with parchment. Stone is optional, to even out oven heat.

      Is that making sense?

  15. Just bought your Gluten-Free Artisan Bread cookbook. I’ve been reading it, but have not tried a recipe yet. I’m a good cook, but every effort at baking GF bread (from other cookbooks) has ended in a brick. Just cannot seem to get a rise. My house is cool & dry, so I bought the Brod & Taylor Proofer and new (SAF) yeast – same result. Also, I am weighing ingredients.

    My questions – What is your definition of “room temperature?” Should I use the B & T Proofer for your system or not? I’m so frustrated and trying hard to stay hopeful.

    Thank you for your time.

    1. Room temp as we’ve meant it is 68F (or 20C). I’m not sure you need a proofer–we never tested with one and we got a nice rise. But it can’t hurt.

  16. I am just using a recipe for the first time w/the GF ArtisanBin5: how do you bake the crockpot WG with millet/or Bwheat loaf from different scenarios: 1) before 2 hour rise- immediately put in and bake on high for 75 min? 2) after 3 hour refrigerator? need to rest at all before going in pot? 3) after frozen, ie what is the resting time, or baking time per the individual steps of prep inquired about; thanks.

    1. Details on crockpot basic method with our basic GF dough are on page 88 of the book you reference. Unfortunately, we didn’t test crockpot with every different dough. You’ll have to experiment. About the “immediately” question (in other words, without any rise at all), see steps 1 and 2.

      Haven’t tested all those combinations and unfortunately, your guess is probably as good as ours… 🙂

      1. Thanks, I saw another answer to this from you or Zoe, and said to try putting in the pot from the refrigerator, without the rise. I think I would try the rise, then the pot, and see what happens, until I get a dutch oven. Yesterday I was reading somewhere, where either a reader or you had used a Tramantina ceramic coated d.o. and baked breads at 500* with lid on and off, not 450*, and now of course I can’t find it. You commented on use of a different 7.5 qt oven, Latrisse, or something close. I will be ordering one, or buying one, today…I think I’ll need the 7.5 qt if I want a 1.5 loaf, at your suggestion.
        Thanks for the answer; so it appears that
        your GF book was suggesting the crockpot method after the first 2 hour rise…to go directly into the pot, if I am reading your answer right, as the book doesn’t really say where the dough is coming from?

      2. Right–it doesn’t need a pre-rest, though it probably won’t hurt anything.

        You don’t neccesarily need such a big D.O.; a smaller one will work, and a very small one will contain sideways spreading. My favorite for a 1.0 pound loaf only holds about a quart.

      3. thanks about the crockpot answers; I let mine rise room temp, in the pot, on top of parchment, and it has been in there 80 min. cooking after the rise.
        The dough is still raw at the top, and it was quite moist, like thick, thick waffle batter when I took it out of the refrigerated container. I have made loaves from Glutino mixes before your GF, WG Artisan bread, that were this moist, in a bread pan, and they came out fine, in a preheated oven, at a different temperature, when they registered about 200* internally. I may not want to use the Crockp method again, and may have to use less liquid in the future. I did not weigh the flours, but used cups, and did not weigh the water, or anything else. I did weigh the GF flours for the original mix at 455g each, however. Oh well, experiment, I will. Just now added another 20 min to the crock pot, and will keep checking. Wish me luck.

  17. Well, it is almost done; didn’t transfer to the oven soon enough; I made my first curling stone for the next winter Olympics…bad, bad loaf; never, never use that crock pot again. I would have been better off in a bread pan, preheated oven. My oven is gas, and won’t hold steam, and I didn’t run out for a d. oven today. Next bread attempt should be better ( I do miss rustic breads, for sure).
    Thanks. I won’t give in yet.

    1. On the good side, my first attempt at fried fish, with ATK GF book came out a 10. I haven’t had fried cod or halibut in about a year…umm, umm: ate way too much.

  18. ? Can I put – in my present case buckwheat variation on 100 % whole grain p 102 – the dough right in my first loaf baking pan from the mixing bowl, let it do it’s first 2 hour rise in that pan and Either 1) bake it after that rise OR cover and refrigerate in that pan so I do not have to handle /shape it and lose the air bubbles from the first rise? Experimenting with this and do not see it asked anywhere else . Love love love your 2014 GF5 min book .

    1. Glad the book’s working for you, thanks for the kind words. But– can you re-phrase your question, I’m afraid I don’t understand.

  19. I have your Healthy Bread cookbook, but at the encouragement of my Dr. have gone GF, so now I have that book as well. This morning, I made a no rise/no rest loaf so my hubby could make sandwiches for lunch. Then after fridge time, I made a one lb loaf with a 90 minute rise. Recipe 1 except I split the rice flour half white/half brown. The loaf is only barely 5 inches in diameter and maybe 3″ at the tallest point. Does this sound about right? Gonna have to try with egg whites, for sure.

    1. These don’t rise as much as wheat loaves, for sure, and three inches is about right. The important thing is the crumb though– if there is decent hole structure, you’re doing everything right.

      But if you want to coax a little more rise out of it– yes, do the egg white version and I think you’ll be happier. Could use the current batch for flatbread, pita, or pizza and you’ll get a great result.

  20. Going on second try. First go round I used some finely ground white rice from asian market, not glutinous rice, the wrong gums, 50/50 tapioca/arrowroot, and a more finely ground sorghum than recommended but it was very high quality. Results were not bad, good crust, decent rice, edible crumb but too gummy.

    This go round I’m using rice flour as close to recommended as possible, psyllium and the same starch mix, no potato starch. The dough mixed up very well with no stickiness. I think partly due to psyllium. Psyllium seems to have an endless capacity to take up water so I was not sure where to stop when mixing in water to the dough. I think after the rise there will be no problems with it holding shape and spreading out – not sure if this is good or bad.

    Any thoughts on hydrating when using psyllium?

  21. …failure #2, and this was even with the eggs added. When I first mixed it, it rose nicely in the bucket, but after refrigerating it overnight and making a 2 lb loaf in the standard loaf pan, I let it rest on the counter….no activity….moved it to the window in the sun….little activity…..put it on the preheating stovetop….little activity, went ahead, spread water on surface, slashed and put it in the oven….baked….it’s a brick…..WHAT am I doing wrong?

    1. Becky I also have produced a hockey puck and curling stone- the stone was cooked in a 30+yr old crockpot: took over 3 hours, and still too moist in the middle; then took out the remainder of dough from refrigeration, and also had more moist, undone, lengthy oven times with poor results. I did substitute amaranth for the oat flour: oat flour absorbs a lot of liquid. I really did not like the flavor of the GF whole grain, anyway, so it was all thrown out, at an expense of course: my bad to make a full recipe. In comparison with other GF recipes; these are very moist doughs, and I would try a little mix at a time in the future, and go with 1/8 to 1/4c less water, next go around. I have been using a boxed mix for sometime, and it is about 4 cups NG flours, 2 eggs, 4 T melted butter, and 1/3/4 c liquid with sorghum, pea protein,flaxseed meal,buckwheat,millet flour, rice flours, potato starch,cornstarch, and guar gum ( I added more xanthum and yeast), cooked in 9″ bread pan, and they come out great on first rise baking: but, that is not the artisan loaf these recipes are: not thick crust and boule/peasant type loaves. Now the company has switched to all rice flours, and just potato and corn starch: same amount oil, eggs, liquid: came out fine in bread pan; they are moist doughs, but not as much as the GF Artisan batters. I think I will just have to cut the liquid, as they take forever to bake, with poor results. I was so hoping to have the loaves other people are getting. Good luck; I hope Jeff has some more suggestions. I need to go get an oven thermometer ( I have a gas oven).

      1. Thanks– yes, must check oven temps or won’t get the oven spring. And folks can always decrease the water a bit if they seem too dry.

        Measurement can also be a problem with GF flours–remember to pack them into the cup like brown sugar if you’re using HBin5, and using the weights is better if you’re using GFin5.

    2. Hi Becky! I don’t ever see much rise in the pre-bake resting phase, and if you waited for a long time to see that rise before baking the loaf, you may have over-proofed the dough. Like Jeff has said before, the biggest rise happens due to oven spring.
      I’ve had by far the best results by heating a cast-iron pot in the oven ON THE BAKING STONE at 500. Then when it’s preheated to 500, I remove the pot, put in the loaf, slash it (I find that slashing it before getting it the pot results in me smoothing the slash back together when transferring it), cover the pot and put it back in the oven on the stone and immediately reduce the temperature to 475. I bake with lid on at 475 for 15 minutes, then reduce the temp to 425, keeping lid on for another 15 minutes. Then I take the lid off the pot and bake for a last 15 minutes or so until the crust is really nice and crisp. If I want a crisp crust all the way round, I take the loaf out of the pot and bake directly on the stone for the last 15. This has resulted in FANTASTIC bread, whether it’s the master recipe loaf or the 100% whole grain one. Try it, and let us know if this helps.

      1. Do you have a baking stone and a regular pot that’s oven safe? A regular pot can work too (I’ve tried that too), it’s mostly there to trap the steam…

      2. Jill will the 500* method work for basically any round type bread? What would one do with a baguette, specifically, if they cannot use a steam method, besides spraying, as the pan method of water, doesn’t work, in a gas oven? Just put the bread, in a baguette pan, preheat to 500*,with stone, and put the pan on the stone? Do you bake using the 500* method for dough with eggs, as well: GF whole grain, or the master recipe, eggs included, for example?

      3. Cheryl – I do the same for baguettes, just heating the stone to 500, then bringing the temp down to the suggested temp in the book for baking baguettes. I have toyed around a bit with increasing the baking temp as well to get a darker crust, but I can’t remember what I settled on last time, eek. I think last time I baked it most of the way through using a baguette pan on top of the baking stone (keeps its shape better that way) at the recommended temp, and then upped the temp to around 425 for the last 10 minutes to crisp and brown the crust.
        Yes, I have tried this method with the egg and no-egg doughs, and it seems to work well for any “crusty” bread.
        Last time I baked up a batard from the 100% whole grain dough, I also shaped the dough with water instead of flour. This gave me a smoother surface and ended up baking up really nicely. Sometimes when I shape with flour I get an irregular surface that doesn’t quite seem to keep the steam trapped in.
        Keep playing with it – try not to get frustrated. This is seriously a DREAM method, the recipes are SO GOOD. People are always floored when I tell them these breads are gluten-free. Bread can be finicky, but honestly no matter how hard you are on yourself or your results, a fresh loaf still warm from the oven can hardly ever go bad with a pat of nice butter melting on it… 🙂

      4. Hi Jill, I managed to get my hands on a Lodge cast iron dutch oven, so I tried your method….made sure I was up to 500 to start, did it just as you described….with a one lb loaf….it seems a little better, but tell me….do you make that size loaf, or a larger one? Is the steam that you refer to just from the dough itself, because I can’t see a way for any steam to get into the cast iron pot with the lid on anyway, so haven’t been doing the water bit.

        Jeff….not sure if you were replying to me or not, but since it was my question that started this thread, here goes. Yes I have the GF book, I used Recipe #1, with whole eggs, and split the rice flour 50/50 white/brown. All Bob’s Red Mill except the xanthan gum/potato starch. All ingredients weighed to make the initial mix…..and weighed when mixing the bread.

      5. Thanks Zoe, I wonder tho’, why the crusty Boule video includes oil, when the recipe in the book doesn’t. In fact, the first recipe in the book that contains any oil at all, is the Olive Bread on page 122. Can oil be added to the other recipes as well? I’d be happy to know if that might offer a better result.

      6. Hi Becky,

        I may have sent you the video from the gluten-free chapter in Healthy Bread, here is another one:

        If you haven’t tried the egg white version, that may give you better results. Is your bread coming out much different than what I show here?

        If the issue is that you are finding the bread too dense, then oil isn’t likely to help. If you want a more tender crumb, then it may be just right.

        Thanks, Zoë

      7. Thanks Zoë, my last 2 loaves, using the cast iron pot and starting temp at 500F, were much better, (used whole eggs), and have some airiness inside, although less than yours(using egg whites). I still have some dough so may try a larger loaf on the stone again, should I start with the temp a little higher than 450? since with the pot I preheated with it at 500 then down to 475 when I put the loaf into the pot, then reduced by 25 degrees every 15 minutes. My husband would really like a loaf pan loaf, for sandwiches but those have been pretty nearly flat….very frustrating.


      8. Hi. Yes, you can certainly try a higher temperature. This is often successful with GF breads. You’ve tried the same dough in a loaf pan and didn’t like the results? You may like the Challah dough as a sandwich loaf.

        Thanks, Zoë

      9. Yes, I am quite tired of baking bricks. Perhaps it’s time to search out a different recipe. Can’t say I am not disappointed. I had such high hopes for your GF book. If I follow your instructions AND your recipes….well…. The loaf I made today following your sandwich loaf inst….exactly….it’s a brick…

      10. Hi Becky,

        I’m so sorry you aren’t having better results. Had you had luck with the gluten-free breads in our healthy bread book? What kind of white rice (stone ground vs sweet) flour are you using? We give a lot of variations for the mix #1, can you tell me which flours you are using?

        Have you tried baking the dough before you refrigerate it, just letting it have it’s first rise right in the loaf pan? The instructions are on page 68.

        Thanks, Zoë

    3. You said you had the HBin5 book (not GFin5)–specifically which recipe are you using? And what brands of ingredients are you using? Are you making any substitutions at all?

      1. Jeff, I was the one who tried the first GF whole grain with substituting amaranth for the oat flour, and did not use millet seed, but used millet flour, and sunnie seeds, in the 30+ year old crockpot that produced a curling stone. Then I proceeded to make hockey pucks out of the remaining dough. I never baked them at the 450*, or have not measured the oven temp with a thermometer, yet.(I was coordinating dinner in the oven with the bread temps, and it just didn’t work out timewise). The bread cooked way too long in each instance, and always shrunk, then made too moist interior: plus I plain did not like the taste of the GF Whole grain, millet combination, so I threw it all out, and will make a combination of WG and master recipe in the future, halving the recipe in the beginning, so I don’t have to throw out expensive GF flours, in the future. I got a d. oven yesterday, and am about out of sandw bread. I will make a tried and true recipe without artisan crust for that,in a bread pan, and I want to use the GFin5 almond, coconut recipe next, as I’m not a huge fan of simple grain flours for my health, anyway, and prefer to add in some almond or cashew flours, and egg whites, when I do. I want to try your recipe today or tomorrow, and will go get a thermometer to see what happens in my oven before I bake. I don’t think the traumotina
        d oven can take 500*, so I will have to settle at 475*. Those were the substitutions: I gave all my oat flour away, as it wasn’t GF oat flour, although I always enjoyed bread, and pancakes made of it in the past. My favorite biscuits are made with almond flour, brown/white rice, and potato starch/xanthum gum. I find sometimes I have to rest the batter, and also cook at a lower temperature, longer with quick breads, GF.
        Oh, I did substitute the tapioca with arrow root. I react to tapioca, as well. I am lucky to tolerate eggs and dairy. That is what happened with my GF WG endeavor: expensive lesson learned: don’t make up a master recipe of GF flours, or make the full recipe of dough, until I get this down…thanks for your and Jill follow thru, as that will sell your Artisan skills, with word of mouth, that you are available for guidance! I won’t give up yet! Just need the time to experiment with my work schedule.

      2. I use Bobs’s almond flour; or I grind my own cashew flour; I used Bob’s b rice, and other flours, but had some white sticky flour from Asian store, and ? arrowroot substitution for tapioca. Potato starch is from bin at WINCO, so will have to see if they have a brand on next time I need it, with GFIn5.

  22. That I will try with the dutch oven, but don’t know if it is beyond 475* suggestion. I ordered one, and today got the notice it has arrived. I will only mix up one half recipe, and lower water 1/8 cup, and also try all these suggestions. I did not have a d. oven before trying the first attempts. Maybe mine rested too much also. I also want to verify my gas oven t*. thanks for being available to help us amateurs.

  23. I would be baking for my GF son, but he is also allergic to eggs. Are there any recipes in your book that don’t include eggs?

    Thanks much,
    PS Would you mind sending your reply to my email?

    1. Sorry Donna, we don’t reply to e-mails…
      Our standard recipe in the book–it’s Master Recipe–is without eggs, though you get a better rise if you use the egg whites variation. The rest are a mix–probably about half the recipes are made with eggs.
      All in all, I’d say most people find that the eggs or egg whites help with rising and keeping it lighter.

  24. Of course, that’s not an option if you’re allergic. I’ve been using the flax substitution; that is, 1 Tbls flax seed and 3 Tbls water for each egg with good results. My recipe has 4 eggs in it, so I grind 4 Tbls of flax in a blade grinder and add 170 g of water to the mix. I would think a powdered egg replacer product might work as well.

  25. thanks Jeff about the sticky white rice flour; I can use that for pancakes, muffins and biscuits, and get some w rice flour, bob’s, out of a bin… before I try again…

  26. Hi
    I’m going to be making the GF bread using your recipe from the ‘In 5 mins a day’ book but don’t want to make the big batch to start with. Can you reduce the quantities in equal fractions to make a smaller batch?

  27. Becky, I accidentally left 4 T of melted Grass fed butter out of my sandwich bread recipe, and it turned out fine…but it was made of 1/3 WG GFin 5, and 2/3 All purpose GF recipe, (about 13 3/8 oz All purpose to 6 2/3oz WG), used pys husk, added 1/2c almond flour, and 2 more egg whites ( I separated out the eggs, and beat the whites til stiff; 2 eggs, 2 egg whites)and folded them in at the end, and used 1 3/4 + 1 T liquid ( there was some Brown rice flour in the All purpose mix. I didn’t refrigerate the dough, and actually thought I let it rise too long before baking it( forgot, and left on counter about 60 minutes). I had a 9″ metal bread pan, lined with parchment, sprayed with coconut oil. I preheated a stone, and placed the breadpan on the stone, and baked about 48 min at 375, until about 200* internal temp. I then stuck the loaf outside to cool. When I brought it in, the loaf was very damp on the outside, as was the parchment paper. I left the bread out of the paper, dry out on the stove top, while I baked dinner. When I sliced it, it looked like the interior of the bread on the video, and their pictures. It was not the artisan loaf they are talking about, and I am ready to try pizza today, as I made up the flours and dough yesterday. I am anxious to try the boule, also, so I am reading your experience and their answers…just got my D oven ( looks like their brand, but mine says not to heat past 450* for the same one?) and purchased an oven thermometer, and scale. So glad I have the scale. I am craving a boule crusty or baguette loaf, and am wanting the time to bake. We are all learning from everyone’s comments. Thanks for posting yours along with the author’s responding back!

    1. Hi Cheryl,

      When you are making this many changes to a recipe, I highly recommend you mix up a small batch to make sure you like the results. So glad you are enjoying experimenting with new recipes. And I am thrilled you liked the pizza!

      Cheers, Zoë

      1. Zoe, I have had success over and over with what I just described, with a loaf pan, on my own: 2/3 all purpose to 1/3 WG, your ingredients, plus I like to add cashew or almond flour (1/2 of one of them), and 2 more egg whites, and fold in the egg whites, separately from just using whole eggs. Or, at least fold in 2 egg whites and use 2 eggs: the recipe above came out perfect when I omitted the butter. I can put fat on the bread after it is baked: 1 used as described: 1 3/4 c liquid ( usually combo of coconut milk unsweetened, not canned, Trader’s, and water, the 13 3/8oz all purpose to 6 2/3 oz WG, 1T yeast,1/2 t salt, almond flour, either 1T psy husk or 1t xanthum gum, mixed, let rise on warm stove top. Placed on preheated stone to 475, as described above, etc. It usually comes out great for sandwich breads all the time. I substitute out arrow root for the tapioca, though. I did make up a small loaf; this recipe makes one 9″ loaf size. ( could add 1/2T sugar if wanted).

  28. The pizza dough was almost perfect, and the pizza was yummy, just need to give it a tad more sweetener in the dough for Jeff, and he would eat it. Easy to make, store, freeze til next time one has un-nitrate toppings available! Happy. GF Artisan Bread in Five…
    Thanks! may use the 2nd batch for a just garlic & rosemary-like appetizer thin bread.

  29. Thanks, Zoe; it kind of defeats your purpose of GF in 5 a day, premixed dough, but I need to have a reliable one for sandwiches, and then I can keep working on the artisan/crusty loaves I am craving, in the meantime. I am finding that in the beginning, I have about 4-6 bowls going at a time with 2 recipes, and mixing two master mix: all purp and WG, GF. But, I took a couple days off work, and am relaxing in the kitchen…good for the mind and soul, not to have to troubleshoot and solve problems with clients for a change. I know once I get the hang of it, and have prepared dough in the freezer, it will be 5min a day prep…yahoo! and fresh bread…what a treat! and bread that NG folks will enjoy, cuz in my house, that is all they get, unless it is from the store. Have a good weekend.

  30. Becky, try the loaf that I’ve had success with that I have described twice, GF ( their all purp mix + the WG mix; + almond flour, and see the rest. I posted it twice. It is not the mix a batch and store; it is mix, rise, and bake, but I need it when I need it, and will continue to experiment with their other recipes, but will have a ‘go to’ sandwich bread that tastes good, and is sandwich size.
    Try it out, and see if it works for you. I add the almond flour for extra protein, and flavor. I have used cashew flour, too. Good luck. If you have any questions, reply back via their posts…

  31. I am getting ready to make the GF pizza crust and noticed that it calls for 2 tsp xanthan gum. Is this in addition to what is already in my master mix or am I only adding it if I did not put it in the master mix? Thank you for your time and a great book.

    1. Hi Kyle,

      Because you are adding flours beyond what is in the master mix, the dough will be too dense if you don’t add a bit more xanthan.

      Thanks, Zoë

  32. Hi, just a quick question about the GF book. Are any of the recipes paleo friendly? Or would I be able to substitute some of the ingredients to make it paleo? I have the first book and I just love it to pieces. Due to health reasons my doctor wants me to do the paleo diet, i’m not sure that I can survive without bread though!

      1. Thank you for responding! Yes, Almond and coconut flours are safe and I think the Arrowroot and Tapioca are alternative starches. I am just starting my research on this. After a few months I can reintroduce things into my diet and see how it goes so hopefully one day I will be able to make and eat your bread again! I will check out the book you suggested, thank you!

  33. I’d like to make dinner rolls out of the molasses oat bread – can you suggest how to do that?
    Is there a general rule of thumb for using any of the bread doughs to make rolls?
    Temp / time / crockpot?? Love all the recipes I’ve tried so far! They all turn out great!

    1. Hi Camille,

      Are you baking with our gluten-free dough? Do you have our book? If so, there are several bun shaping and baking directions in there that will help. They have pictures too.

      Thanks, Zoë

  34. Hi there! Just discovered your site through “Gluten Free & More”, via an email they sent with a link to your GF Master Dough recipe and accompanying recipes. After MANY past failures from other offerings, I’m in the ‘rest’ period of your Master Dough recipe. I made a half batch as a trial and have GREAT hopes! I once made a successful loaf of bread with sorghum flour and was hooked on the ‘wheaty’ taste of it, but sadly was never able to duplicate the success. SO glad I’ve found you. I’ve gone through ALL the GF FAQ section but didn’t see this query: “Rather than making the Boule, can I place the dough in a standard 9 x 5 bread pan with success?” There was one post with an allusion to this, but no firm details. Many thanks!!

    1. Hi Debra,

      So glad you found us. Hope you enjoy the bread. I suggest making a smaller loaf than a 9×5, since GF tends to be dense to begin with, the larger loaves will be even more so. Even using an 8 1/2 x 4 1/2 is a better bet. Otherwise it is about the same as the master. You will want to fill the pan about 3/4 full with 2-pounds of dough and let it rest longer, by about 30 to 40 minutes before baking. You’ll drop the oven temperature to 425°F and bake for about 60 minutes.

      You can find more details in our GF book.

      Hope that helps, Zoë

  35. Zoe, you’re an angel!! Just finished letting it rest for the initial 2 hours. I have some small loaf pans that I did consider using, so will do so. Using right fro. The 2 hour rest, so do I still need to let it rest once in my pan? Also, I put a cast iron grill in the oven to preheat. Should I also use the addition of the water pan since it’s not strictly artisan? I intend to purchase the book after I have a success. This is my experiment with your method/flours etc.

    1. Hi Debra,

      You can just let the dough rest right in the baking pan if you don’t intend to let it refrigerate first. But, if you’ve already let it rise in the bucket then you will just let the dough rise for about as long as it takes to let your stone fully preheat, which is 30 to 40 minutes depending on how thick it is.

      Thanks, Zoë

  36. I found Bob’s Red Mill 1 to 1 baking flour. Here are the Ingredients:
    Sweet White Rice Flour, Whole Grain Brown Rice Flour, Potato Starch, Whole Grain Sweet White Sorghum Flour, Tapioca Flour, Xanthan Gum
    They don’t list proportions.

    I tried to do half a master dough from The New Artisan Bread in 5 Minutes. Revised and updated. Chapter 8. I did not use eggs.

    I basically made a dough like the non gluten free because it says I can replace wheat flour with it. I left it out to rise and it barely moved. Is that because I did not use eggs? if so can I add them now?

    The yeast works fine in my wheat breads.

    1. Hi Drew,

      There are several issues to address. First, if you have an older edition of that book, you will need to check out the corrections page: the gluten-free recipes had an omission. It has been fixed in newer copies.

      That flour blend has worked well for me in cakes, cookies and other non-yeasted recipes, but it didn’t seem to have enough structure to support the rise in a yeast bread. So, you may need to add more xanthan gum.

      What did you use in place of the eggs? They also add structure to the dough, so just leaving them out may result in a dough that just bakes flat.

      Have you tried any of our g-f breads as written to know what they should look like? Here is a post that gives some info and pictures:

      Thanks, Zoë

      1. I did try your blend before I found it hard to work with. When I saw a 1 to 1 flour by Bob’s I thought I would try it.
        I did not add eggs because I thought I would try it 1 to 1 like it said. It did not rise. I added eggs and some more flour. Then I put it in a loaf pan. and sat it on my oven while I per heated it. It seemed to rise a. It so I waited about 2 hours and baked it at 400 for 1 hour or so. There was little oven spring. I was very pale and resembles a tan brick.

      2. Hi Drew,

        I think Bob’s meant you can replace wheat flour with their gf blend, so it may work better using it in our master wheat recipe? But, as I mentioned before, I haven’t had success with it. I suggest making half batches if you are going to do any experimenting.

        Thanks, Zoë

      3. Hi Zoe,
        That is what I did then added 2 eggs to the 1/2 batch. I tried it and like I said it seemed pale. When I cut it it was moist in the middle but very dry on top.
        should I brush the top with egg whites or oil before I bake? Like I said I am trying a sandwich bread in a pan.

      4. Hi Drew,

        So, if I understand correctly, you’ve made the bread on page 53 using Bob’s gluten-free flour blend, but added eggs and more flour? Is that right?

        If you want a softer crust, you can bake at 375° and brush with butter as it goes into the oven and again when it comes out. This is true for any breads.

        Thanks, Zoë

      5. Hi, our family loves GF Artisan Bread in 5! Boules and baguettes are coming out fine although we are still perfecting the rise. My question: I read that the 6 qt mixer is not recommended. Our family is going to be making all the GF bread for a local fundraiser, we were thinking of borrowing a 20 qt mixer from a local restaurant, have you had occasion to make a big batch with a large mixer?

      6. Hi Lisa,

        The problem with the 6-quart mixer is that the paddle doesn’t make a good connection with the bowl and so it just doesn’t mix as well. There is a professional kitchen trick of twisting the paddle so it isn’t in the locked position, which will give you a better contact with the bowl. Ask someone in the kitchen to show you. Depending on the kitchen, they may have newer mixers that have safety features that don’t let you override the lock? If there is enough dough in the mixer, it should work either way and you’ll just need to scrape down the sides often.

        Thanks and hope that is helpful! Zoë

  37. Hi, I’m working from the gf in 5 cookbook. I’ve had good rise, follow the instructions to bake the boule, however the bread comes out very pale, (I’m using sugar) w a super hard crust that it very difficult to cut. The inside is dense and appears to be baked properly, though I don’t know how dense the bread should be. My question is, how can I get the bread to be darker and the crust nice enough to cut? Any thought about what I may be doing wrong? Thanks!

    1. Hi Claire,

      Did you see this response already? You’d left a question on a different post, so wanted to make sure you didn’t miss it:

      You can brush the top with an egg wash (using just the yolk mixed with a tablespoon of water will get the best color). If your crust is too hard, I would bake in either a Dutch Oven or use the non-convection heat, which tends to make a thicker crust.

      Thanks, Zoë

      1. Hey Zoë! Thanks so much for your reply. I totally couldn’t find the reply so thanks for replying again. I can’t wait to try your suggestions!!

        Thank you!!

  38. this is how i bake the gf olive oil bread from healthy bread in5min – i preheat oven to 465 – put the bread in add the water to the pan close the door quickly and turn the oven down to 450 and bake for 45 minutes comes out nice and crusty and is not dense or wet

  39. LOVE! the book.

    I’m trying to make a garlic/rosemary style Boule (similar to the good fresh bread at Costco). Is it as simple as adding the garlic rosemary to the dough? If I wanted a whole bucket, should I add it in the initial phase? Or as I bake each loaf.

    Thanks, you guys are great!

    1. Hi Mike,

      You can do either of those things. Are you baking from the gluten-free book? If so, there is a recipe for this bread on page 161 that you should check out.

      Thanks, Zoë

  40. Thanks Zoe!

    Nope, using Abin5. Gluten free not needed… yet! It sounds like adding to the bucket might be better (don’t want to handle the individual loaves too much). Is it better to saute the garlic first, or will chopped raw garlic be okay.

  41. I have a question about the yeast and the initial 2 hr rise.
    1) does the little granules of yeast have enough moisture to dissolve in the dough? Wouldn’t the yeast work more efficiently by dissolving is first in the water? Or am I maybe using the wrong type of yeast (I noticed two types in the store)?
    2) What is the effect on the endresult if the 2 hr rise time is made shorter by placting the bread in a warm oven (100 degr F)?

    thanks for the help,

    1. We’ve found that the high moisture level in our doughs makes dissolving in water unneccesary. You may find that “instant” or “quick-rise” yeast works faster, but we haven’t really found that this makes much difference either.

      For doughs with eggs, we avoid the warm-rise–there’s a food safety issue. But it won’t hurt with non-egg breads. The rise will be quicker.

      1. Thanks Jeff for the quick answer. This morning I made my first 100% whole grain boule, and it came out perfect. The crust was so good. The whole family loved it, not just my celiac daughter.

  42. Hi my son is allergic to potatoes. What is the best substitution for potato starch in flour blend #1?


    1. Click on our GF FAQs tab above, then click on Substitutions for ingredients in our gluten-free recipes.

      There’s a potato starch tip in there that doesn’t appear in the book. We’re not perfectly satisfied with the result–potato starch seems to absorb water nicely, but see what you think.

  43. Hi Zoe,

    I wanted to let you know that I tried your suggestion of baking in the oven without convection and it’s awesome! We have bread! And the egg yolk wash gives the bread a good colour. Thank you,

  44. I picked up your gf artisan bread in 5 minutes book this week and am very excited to try some of these recipes. My question is not exactly about a recipe, but about the flour mixtures. Mixing up big batches of blended flour just doesn’t work for me; I prefer storing my flours individually. Do you have the equivalent measurements for mixing up just one batch of your recipe using the individual flours?

    1. Hi Heather,

      If you cut the Flour Mix in half it makes enough for one batch of the Master recipe.

      I hope that helps and enjoy the bread! Zoë

  45. I live in India where neither potato starch nor teff flour is easily available. Can I substitute more tapioca flour for the potato starch, in mixture #1. Can I substitute buckwheat flour for teff in mixture #2.

    1. Hi Neeta,

      I would start out with a smaller batch of the flour mixture and make sure you are happy with the results. Potato and Tapioca don’t behave exactly the same, so you’ll want to experiment with it. Let me know what you find.

      The buckwheat will be a fine substitute for the Teff.

      Thanks, Zoe

      1. Thanks. I am going to start with the #2 since it’s an easier substitution. Will let you know how it goes!

  46. I used an aluminum foil pan for steam instead of a broiler pan and I got no steam. I have 2 questions: 1 Can I use lava rocks in an aluminum pan for steam? 2 What type of boiler pan would you recommend?

    Thanks so much for your great book!!

    1. I just use the broiler pan that came with my oven/broiler. It’s enameled steel, and after using it this way for a while, it’s durable but looks terrible–covered with calcium deposit. Don’t use it for much of anything else.

      I’d guess your lava rock idea should work, never tried it. Assuming the whole setup is food-safe and doesn’t cause safety problems, should be OK.

      1. Thanks so much for your response. I tried alot of diffrent recipes from your book and they were truly delicious!!! Beyond anything I ever imagined! Can I use Mixture #2 for any recipe in the book that calls for #1?

      2. Well, no, not without adjustment and a willingness to experiment. It takes much more water and definitely benefits from eggs. Before you start experimenting, make sure you’re comfortable with the several recipes in the book that take a lot of the #2 flour.

  47. Thanks! For mixture #1, the book states that you can replace white rice flour with brown rice flour. Do you have an exact number of how many more tablespoons of water I will haveto use?
    For mixture #1 and Mixture #2 – can I use whole grain oat flour or do I haveto use regular oat flour?

    1. As far as we know, the oat flours are all whole grain, we never found a white version. Check the fiber content of the two products you’re comparing. I’m sure you can use the product you’re considering.

      As for the extra water–try 2 tablespoons and see what you think.

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