Ask a Question

Questions? Start with our Search Bar: We’ve been posting recipes and answering questions on this site since 2007, so if you have a question, there’s probably a post that addresses it somewhere on this website. So, the first thing to do is to use our Search Bar. On our Home Page, it’s right over our pictures. In narrower laptop or desktop displays, it sometimes appears right underneath our orange BreadIn5 logo, and on phones it’s right above where it says “How to make bread in five minutes a day?” Just type in the bread style, ingredient, or technique that you’re interested in, and the search-engine will show you all the similar posts we’ve ever done on it, with recipes and answers to many questions.

Another place to look: our FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) page (we also have a Gluten-Free FAQs page). If you don’t find your answer in the FAQs, you can post baking questions and comments, but please be brief, so we can get to all the questions.  

If neither of those get you to the answer you need, click on any “Comments/Reply” field at the top of any of our posts (it doesn’t have to be here on “Ask a Question”) and scroll down to the bottom; then enter your question or comment. Tell me which book you’re working from, and which recipe and page number–we need that in order to answer your question, Which we will do, right here on the website either right under your question, or a few down if a lot of people had the same question. Don’t look for the response in your personal email… Come back here to the side on the page where you posted, to look for the answer.

Questions are answered here on the website within 24 hours, often with a reference to a page number in our books where possible.  Please remember that the blog is moderated, so your post may not appear until we’ve read and approved it; this can take 24 hours.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

6,573 thoughts on “Ask a Question

  1. Hi, I am making your English granary-style bread from the recipe on the website. It just says “malt powder” in the ingredient list, but it doesn’t specify diastatic or non-diastatic. Please clarify. Thank you! I started making sourdough during the pandemic, but it was too much work and a headache. Your “bread in 5” recipes make bread that is just as delicious and SO EASY. Thank you for realizing that busy, working moms with big families can still make homemade bread!

    1. Same for me… Even though I have sourdough in a couple of my books I don’t generally use it. For this purpose it doesn’t matter diastatic or no

  2. Hi. I have purchased the New Healthy Bread in 5 minutes a Day and Artisan Pizza and Flatbread in 5 Minutes A Day and love them both. I am wanting to branch out a little bit and would like to make the 100% Whole Grain Herbed Potato and Roasted Garlic Bread on pg 155 in the first edition of The New Healthy Bread in 5 Minutes a Day. But I want to make sure I understand the instructions. The recipe says the potato is raw and cut into 1/4 inch cubes. So to clarify, the potato is not cooked at all before being used in the recipe, correct?

    1. I’m so glad you are enjoying the books!

      That’s right. If you make the potato cubes very small, they’ll cook nicely right within the bread. If you chunk them too large, it won’t work.

  3. Hi,
    I’m just wondering whether your Gluten Free Master Recipe on the website uses US cups or metric for the liquids? I’m assuming US, as the flour mix recipe is in US cups, but I just wanted to check.
    many thanks,

    1. Those are US cups, though it’s best to weigh ingredients if you have a scale. And if you’re substituting other brands of flours other than Bob’s Red Mill, this is going to take some experimentation–the testing was done only with that brand, widely available in the US but often not outside the US.

  4. Good morning! I am having trouble with the Master Recipe Bread in The New Artisan Bread in Five Minutes”. It comes out of the oven really dense and I do not get any oven spring.

  5. Hi
    Love your book the new artisan bread in 5 I have a question about the recipe for large batch 6-2-2-13 can I use a stand mixer to mix the dough
    I’m getting beautiful rise lots of bubbles but when I bake in a dutch oven as they cool they become heavy and dense
    Is this because not mixing the dough enough

  6. Hello
    I am just starting with Bread in 5 and made my first batch of the master recipe dough on page 53in the New Artisan Bread in 5 minutes a day yesterday I made the recipe by weight and used all purpose flour, kosher salt and SAF instant yeast. Althought I allowed the dough to rise almost 3 hours, it did not nearly fill my 6 quart container. I would estimate that the dough doubled in size and my memory is that it went slightly higher than the 2 quart line. I live in central PA and we keep the house at a consistent 70 degree temparture. Do you have any recommendations as to whether I should use more yeast or let rise a longer period of time.

    I will be baking the first loaf today in a loaf pan to attempt to control the spread. Any comments will be greatly appreciated.

    1. Doubling is fine. I’d bake it off and see what you think of the result–it definitely improves as the dough ages.

  7. I received the “Gluten-Free Bread in Five Minutes a Day” book as a gift and never used it. I wish the grains in that book could be replaced with flours that are easily available in stores and not so high in price. Actually I do not need gluten free and like rye flours for German style breads. Even rye is hard to buy now. And I use unbleached white flour and whole wheat. Any tips would be welcome 🙂

    1. Well, it sounds like you really needed my regular wheat-based book rather than the GF version. The New Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day is available everywhere, or on Amazon (, and includes a few recipes with rye and is mostly based on all-purpose flour (I like unbleached AP as well). Some whole grain, though there’s more in The New Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day ( And a smattering of all of the above in The Best of Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day ( Also some recipes here on the site, type the relevant words into my Search Bar above, or click on this:

  8. Hello there,
    My adult son just told me about a fascinating bread he is trying to perfect called pan de cristal or glass bread, which involves a simple dough except for the 100 percent hydration! It is nudged (not exactly kneaded) with alternating bouts of folding and resting. I think he is using sourdough, but I found a recipe on King Arthur with regular yeast. Have you ever heard of this? Any way of adapting it to the Artisan Bread in 5 approach (which is pretty much all I do these days ) ?
    Thanks so much for any thoughts!

    1. One of my doughs– 100% whole wheat with vital wheat gluten, is nearly 100% hydration. For white flours or blends, that’s pretty high. In my basic loaf (at, the hydration is 75%. If you go to 100% with typical AP flours, it’s going to be very wet and you need to do the “folding” technique. With higher-protein white flours like King Arthur or bread flour, it’ll be easier to handle. Bottom line- pan de cristal is like my method, but more so. And harder to handle because it’s so wet. Just increase the hydration in my recipe and you’ll get to the same place as your son’s recipe. It may not store well–could get too wet as fermentation byproducts accumulate.

  9. Hi – I am using the Oatmeal Maple Bread recipe page 162 of the new cookbook. It calls for 170 g of maple syrup by weight but the volume is 3/4 cup Plus 1 T for brushing the top. Should I decrease the 170g by 1 T when measuring by weight? Also, the recipe is for 2 loaves, so should I be using 1 T for the top of each loaf or 1/2 T for the top of each loaf?

    1. No, the additional one tablespoon was not included in the 3/4 cups, the 6 oz or the 170 g. An extra tablespoon was intended for each of the two loaves, but keep in mind that this was just a rough approximation you’re going to be brushing it on, and you’ll use whatever is needed to coat the top crust.

  10. What is the ideal refrigerator temperature for resting the dough in the refrigerator and for raising bread and rolls in the refrigerator overnight. My refrigerator is generally 39-40 degrees. Thank you

    1. Hi Lee? Did we just meet out on Food52? See all my frequently asked questions (FAQs, at
      Yes, you can reduce the recipe size to anything you want. Or scale up proportionally (
      Freezing, also yes, see
      I like freezing the dough, but I also sometimes freeze baked loaves if I’m feeling lazy. Much more in the books (

  11. I have New Healthy Bread in 5. I’m trying p 205 “100% Whole Grain Maple Oatmeal Bread”. It is very soupy. I did add the vital wheat gluten and used metric weight for everything. Is it really supposed to be a 100%+ hydration dough?

  12. The New Artisan Bread cookbook, pg 131 light sandwich bread. My dough consistently under yields the 4 lbs. I measure and weigh my (fresh) ingredients and also keep the water under 100 degrees. I consistently only get 3 lbs 8 oz. On this recipe as well as several others (master and olive oil dough). While the bread always comes out great, I’d love to solve the mystery so I can actually get 4 1 lb loaves. Thanks, I love your books and recipes!

    1. You are correct, most of the recipes make four loaves of approximate weight 1 pound. Really, it’s more like 0.9 pounds. The typical recipe in the book will weigh in at 3.6 pounds, not 4.0.

  13. Thanks for making bread making joyful. The Jewish Rye is just what I grew up with. I am now in Seattle and want to send loaves to my NY cousins. How would you suggest packing for overnight shipping? Love the platinum yeast can I switch for all?

    1. (me too)
      Hmm… about sending the loaves, even overnighting them, you’re going to lose freshness and crust-quality. Before you commit to this, try it at home and simulate the delay before they open and eat it. Airtight plastic packaging (Ziplocks?) will delay stale-ing, but will make the crust quite soft on arrival (no alternative though). Also pad them well so they don’t get crushed. And yes, the Platinum will work for all the recipes, but note– if you’re making gluten-free stuff, there’s a trace of wheat protein in the Platinum product that isn’t in other yeast products, from the dough conditioner in Platinum (it’s wheat-based).

  14. Hi!
    I have about 1/4 inch of dough left that has been in my container for over a month. Can I use it (just add to it) or should I throw it away? Thank you for your time! Love your book!

    1. Unless it has mold, you can use it as the basis for a new batch–mix in with the ingredients. See my FAQs page for instructions on recognizing mold (No. 10, Gray color on my dough…).

  15. My yield consistently comes out less than it should (by as much as 8 oz.). I measure everything and the water is no warmer than 85 degrees. What am I doing wrong?

    1. You are correct and not doing anything wrong–most of my recipes make four loaves of approximate weight 1 pound (probably should have said “approximate” in the books and here on the website). Really, it’s more like 0.9 pounds–pretty much exactly what you’re getting. The typical recipe in the books will weigh in at 3.6 pounds, not 4.0. You can scale up the quantities to yield any amount you like. And nothing to do with the temperature

    1. No, but I have a bialy recipe, and you can swap in einkorn, with adjustments. Which of my books do you have, I can point you to the right place…

  16. Will your master recipe work with t65 or t55 flour and if so what adjustments do I need to make? Thanks, Shlley

    1. The master recipe was tested with U.S. all-purpose flour, which is of medium protein. t55 is of higher protein, and as I understand it, t65 is even higher. Both will require extra water, since protein absorbs water. You’ll find this post helpful, but you’ll have to experiment–to get a wet dough that conforms to the container but holds a shape when formed into a loaf: Are you baking in the U.S.? These flours are more available in Europe, aren’t they?

  17. I am making the Bavarian whole grain pumpernickel bread on pg 170 from the New Healthy edition of Bread in 5. I made my own liquid caramel color but the bread is too light. I did add Caramel color powder but still very light. So no cocoa powder? I am eventually going to make the black & white braided pumpernickel & rye but it will not be the color of the picture for sure.

    1. You’re right, the homemade caramel color doesn’t make it that dar. About the caramel color powder, it takes a fair amount in a four-pound batch of dough to create the darkness you’re looking for. It takes a whole tablespoon of the KAF product. If you want to go darker, then yes, 1.5 T of unsweetened cocoa powder works (some of my readers found that inauthentic so I stopped using it!). Also molasses darkens it, 2 tablespoons. You can just add cocoa powder and molasses to this recipe and you’ll get what you’re looking for.

  18. Book is Gluten-Free Artisan Bread in 5 Minutes a Day. The page is 172. The flatbread. Is there a substitute for the egg?

    Thank you,

    1. People have tried the “flax egg,” — works pretty well, type “Gluten Free Baguettes” into my Search Bar above for the formula.

  19. I have your Healthy Bread in 5 book and am curious. If I use the Red Star Platinum yeast for the master recipe, do I increase water temp? Or do you not recommend that yeast for the artisan breads? Thank you

  20. A general question:
    Can I make “sourdough” bread using instant yeast instead of a starter? I don’t make bread often enough, and I don’t have the patience, to be feeding regularly. So commercial yeast it is. But I like the sourdough flavor. Thanks for your input.

    1. Absolutely, by using some of the old dough in my stored dough method, in a new batch. If you have one of the books, I can direct you. There are some resources here on the website under the FAQs page

      1. Right, there’s no sourdough recipe in the original of that book (2007), nor in it’s second edition (2013). On the other hand, both books talk about an approximation for sourdough flavor, by either aging the dough, or using some of your last batch of dough to start a new one.

  21. I have all your books but there is no milk bread recipe and wonder if you could adapt one of your recipes?

  22. I bake in a commercial kitchen. I’ve always let my loaves rise naturally but the kitchen I just started using has a commercial proofing oven. Any guidelines on how much this will shorten the rise time? I use most KA AP flour and Fleischmann’s active dry yeast.

    1. My guess is that in the winter, in cool climates, it’ll decrease rise/rest time by about 15% to 20%, but this will take some experimenation.

  23. Bought your original book: “Artisan Bread…Discovery that Revolutionizes…” but nowhere in it can I find a recipe for sour dough starter. I see 1 on your current website & wanted to print it out but it’s 45 pages! Got a shorter version PLUS the ‘what if’ tips?

    1. You’re right, there’s no sourdough in that book. I published my sourdough recipe in Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day (2016), on Amazon at and The Best of Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day (2021), on Amazon at And you’re also right about printing–the WordPress blog software doesn’t let you edit out the pictures, which would make it much, much shorter. Actually, if you “print”/save it as a .pdf file, AND you have a .pdf editor, you could probably edit it manually, but I’m not sure.

  24. Hi,
    I am wondering about adding King Arthur Rye Bread improver to the deli style rye bread recipe. The instructions on the improver say to add 1 tablespoon for every cup of flour which adds almost 1/2 cup of dry ingredients to the dough. Can you tell me how much more water I should add to compensate for the extra dry ingredients. Thank you so much for these wonderful bread recipes.

    1. Hmmm, I haven’t used that product, so hard to guess, but if we assume it absorbs water at the same rate as the dry ingredients in my rye recipe, and you’re adding a half-cup of this stuff, then it’s very close to a quarter-cup of extra water. But you’re going to have to experiment–start with less, see what the dough looks like, and match it to your expectations from having made this recipe before–it should look about the same. Add the water until it does…

  25. I’m making the master recipe from The New Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day, as I have done many, many times…except this time I witlessly just popped the dough in the fridge right after mixing. Two hours later, it seems to have risen a good bit, but how do I proceed?

    1. It’s really not a problem, just pull it out of the fridge, leave it on the counter, and let it rest till what you used to seeing. It may take longer than 2 hours cuz it’s really cold right now

  26. I love The New Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day.
    How much new information is in The New Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day? Do I really need to buy that book to get recipes for healthy bread?
    Perhaps you could offer a guide that addresses the techniques and ingredients for whole grain baking.

    1. Well, it’s a really different method, based on using vital wheat gluten so you get more stretch and rise from whole grain dough that gets stored. You can experiment with swapping whole grain for the flours in the new artisan bread, but it’ll be denser. I have an old post here on the website about that, just put the words whole grain, or whole wheat into the search bar, I think you’ll find it. Also, put these words into the search bar: Master Recipe from “New Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day”

  27. Hello – Thank you for the book, Artisan Bread In 5 Minutes A Day. I have been using it for years and love it. One thing I have never tried is baking multiple loaves at the same time. Would you have any suggestions and/or tips about this, Thanks so much – Rayna

  28. I have your 2015 edition of the Gluten Free Bread book
    This is about the Boule loaf
    I’ve tried the “master recipe” – first time round I did 2 loaf batches,
    second time round I’m trying 1 loaf batches. I measure the dry ingredients by weight.
    4 times, I’ve come up with loaves the size and consistency of a 5 pin bowling ball.
    The last 2 loaves, even though they didn’t rise worth a darn,
    my wife feels she can eat them, the flavor is great.
    I’m living on the west coast of Canada (Vancouver Island) close to sea level.
    I’m about to give up, the ingredients are rather costly for me to consistently fail.
    I’ve followed the instructions (& recipe) faithfully and am getting nowhere.

    1. Are you using Bob’s Red Mill Flours to make the custom mixtures (that’s what I tested with and other flours will require different amounts of water? Are you using a mixer, or hand mixing (the machines definitely result in a better loaf because they emulsify the ingredients better)? Are you omitting the xanthan gum or ground psyllium husk (can’t omit, they’re crucial)? Any chance your yeast is expired? Using too-warm water? Finally, does your dough look like it’s the consistency you see in this video? If not, your proportions of wet-to-dry ingredients are probably off. And finally, as you can see at the end of the video when the loaf is baked and cut, GF bread doesn’t have big, airy holes like wheat-based breads–these are denser, and that’s to be expected.

      1. I’m using both Bobs’ Red Mill and other flours. I’m using a mixer (Kitchen Aid)
        I used Xatham Gum. Should I be using both?

        My first try turned out to be “expired yeast” – didn’t read the date at the start,
        second batch, I went out & bought new yeast.

        To correct an error on my part – the recipe was in a magazine called
        “Gluten Free & More” November/December 2015 issue.

        Following your pictures, it appears my dough is way too dry.

        Thank you

  29. Hi, I’m using the Master Recipe from The Best of Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day. Due to a goof-up, I doubled the recipe and have a lot of dough in the refrigerator. I’m wondering if I can parbake some of the bread to give to friends. Giving dough away would be another idea, but I thought by the time I got it anywhere, the rise would have happened in my car. This is why I considered parbaking instead. Thanks in advance.

  30. For the Light Whole Wheat Bread Recipe in “The New Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day”, if I wanted to bake that in a loaf pan, what should the temperature and time be to do so?

  31. Hi, I’ve been checking out different editions of your books from the library for years and I love them. Give them as presents all the time. Thank you for your work!

    Do you have a recipe for Native style frybread? My dad used to make it all the time when we were kids, and I miss it. Poori would be a close relative, or the fried flatbread in Trinidadian doubles sandwiches. Thanks!

    1. I don’t have one; the closest would be what in the books I called “naan,” which is a South Asian (Indian) bread that actually isn’t usually fried–but I did. I’ll give you a link to that (it’s in the books too). But Native (American) “frybread” isn’t yeasted like my dough, it’s risen with baking powder. I think this will be about what you’re looking for though: Most Native frybread recipes I see use a lot more oil.

  32. Hi,
    I have been using your gluten-free artisan bread in five minutes a day book and have really been enjoying the recipes. For the pizza dough, can we omit the cornmeal and substitute with more of #1 flour mixture or another gluten-free flour? Members in our family have corn sensitivities.
    Thank you so much for all of your work and help. 🙂

    1. Yes, you can just scale up the other flours, or just use more of number one. You won’t have the crunch, but it will work.

    1. Here’s what I wrote to your second one…

      I have the Miele range that has the electric induction stovetop; no idea if these are applicable to yours. I’ve tried “Automatic,” with decent results, and also “Manual,” with three bursts of steam at the start, at four minutes, and at eight minutes (approximately). Not sure if I can tell the difference. Neither produced too much steam; if anything, I’d have liked a little more. I don’t know what the system delivers when you choose “Automatic.”

  33. Zoe, my wife saw you using the Emile Henry baking pan so she got me one for my birthday last month. I used the basic recipe that came with it and was not happy with it. Today, I used your basic 5 min recipe and am waiting to try it in the new baking pan. My question is: do you preheat it before putting the dough into the pan? Do you use flour or butter to coat the pan before using it? Do you make any adjustments to the basic recipe using the Emile Henry products?
    Thank you

    1. Really, not much in the way of adjustments are needed. I have that pan, and I do grease it, but I don’t flour it for yeast bread, and it works beautifully. I don’t preheat it either.

  34. Recently with baked Olive Spelt Bread I am finding a few large air holes just under the crust when I slice into the loaf. Any assist on what I can do to reduce/eliminate these holes? Many thanks.

    1. Let it sit longer… That often helps. The other option is to go a little harder in the gluten cloaking

    1. In the original book (2007), you’ll find that recipe on page 80. In that book’s new edition (2013), it’s on page 143

  35. First exposed to this method of bread making on Zoe Bakes and then ordered The Best of Artisan Bread. Just 2 short questions that I can’t find the answers to (sorry, if they are here). 1) When dough is in the refrigerator, is the lid in tightly or still cracked open? 2) When ready to make the next loaf, do I bring the dough to room temp before shaping or is is shaped right out of the refrigerator and only rested for 30 minutes before baking?

  36. Hello,I have Wilton Bread Pans, they are 16 x 4. Cannot find bread baking recipes for these pans.I am in the learning stages of bread ,loving all the challenges! Thanks,for the help. Susan

    1. Wow, that’s a gigantic pan (assuming you mean its 16 inches long, 4 inches wide, and 4 inches high. I’ve never used one that large, but it’ll bake through just fine. The longest pan I’ve ever used of that height and width was about 11 inches long. It took 2 pounds 5 ounces of dough (1,050 grams), as detailed in this post:

      So you’ll need about 45% more dough than what I used in the smaller pan, so about 3.38 pounds of dough (54 ounces / 1530 grams). Which of my recipes are you using?

  37. Hi! I’ve been baking your recipes for about a year now and I love them! I recently started tweaking your recipes to include sourdough starter as a leavening agent. Is there any chance you guys would consider publishing a cookbook with your recipes for sourdough starter?

    1. It’s already published in two of my books… “The New Healthy Bread…” and “The Best of Artisan Bread…” Click on the book images above. It’s also here on the website… Put sourdough in the Search Bar above.

  38. I am making some homemade ricotta using a half gallon of whole milk and 1/3 cup of lemon juice. Can I use the leftover whey from this with the yeast in place of water to make the master bread recipe from The New Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day book, or will the whey affect the recipe.

    1. I’ve Used whey before, but never acidified. My best advice would be to taste it first, and if it tastes good to you, I’m sure it’ll make good bread. If it doesn’t taste good to you, don’t use it, or consider using only half of the quantity of water called for in my recipe. Or a quarter?

  39. Even when I use more flour, my dough (using any recipe in your first book) is never as elastic as what I see in your videos. I certainly don’t need scissors to cut it.

    Using either the master recipe on page 26 or the light whole wheat recipe on page 74, the loaf spreads out during the rest period, leaving me with a loaf only 2 inches high at the highest part. What am I doing wrong? I get better results shaping the dough into baguettes, but it’s hard to make a sandwich-size loaf.

    1. First question, what brand of flour are you using, and where you located? Wondering if it might be a low protein flour. Also, how are you measuring flour and water?

  40. Hello, I just love your books! I would like to mill my flour. I know it can be tricky, so which adjustments should I do to make it 5 minutes a day? Thanks a lot!

  41. I just purchased your Gluten-Free Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day from Amazon. Hardback. I thought that you should know that the first couple of chapters are missing. The book opens on page 53 continues to page 84, then starts again on page 21. I will be returning the book, but I thought that you should know so that you can contact the publisher.

  42. I am using The New Artisan Bread book and the Challah recipe. Wondering if you have tips for making hotdog buns using the USA Pan New England Hotdog bun pan. Looking for amount of dough to use, proof time and bake time.

    1. I haven’t used one of these pans, but my best guess is that you need about 3 oz which is about the size of a small peach. And it’s going to need about 15 minutes of baking time at 350F. Brush with egg wash, or egg white wash to get a nice dark crust at that temperature. You don’t want to crisp or hard crust, so don’t bake at 450

  43. I have a sourdough recipe that uses high extraction wheat flour with 75% water/10% bassinage if needed and 20% leaven. I want to replace the high extraction wheat flour with a high-gluten bread flour from our local mill. How should I adjust the water/bassinage? Or should I tray a mixture of high-gluten bread flour and regular wheat flour? Thanks for the information.

    1. My best guess is that you will need more hydration (80??) If you want a high-hydration dough like mine. But the better way would be to just adjust hydration base don the appearance of the dough you are making now.

      1. Thanks for the quick reply, Jeff.

        My current hydration with the milled high-gluten bread flour is about 75% and am only using a tiny bit of the bassinage, mainly for my hands during the stretch/fold. Another 10% would be too much hydration for this flour.

        What exactly is high-extraction wheat flour? Is it just a fancy name for hard whole grain wheat flour?

      2. It’s a whole wheat flour where some of the bran and germ are removed. That leaves behind a higher fraction of starch and gluten. But knowing that it’s high extraction doesn’t tell you whether it was from high gluten flour or not. Since you’re switching to a high gluten flour, I was guessing that you’re going to need more water. But the truth is, since I don’t know the gluten content of your original flour, this is going to take some experimentation.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.